PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM MOLASSES AND EFFLUENT TREATMENT OF SPENT WASH

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ABSTRACT

The use of ethanol in fuel blending has long been in use, and this help in controlling gas emissions but cannot be compared to bio-ethanol in control of greenhouse gas emissions. Bio-ethanol is known to adsorb CO2 they emit; it also improves rural economy. A lot of materials especially starchy crops are used in the production of bio-ethanol. This research work focuses on the production of bio-ethanol from molasses; a waste from sugar cane industries. Bio-ethanol is regarded as one of the most promising fuels from renewable sources. This study also looks at protecting the environment as the effluent of the bio-ethanol production can be treated before discharging to the open field. Four steps are involved in its production; dilution, fermentation, decantation and distillation. The molasses (700ml) was diluted with 300ml of water, after which yeast was added for fermentation process. Other reagents were also added to enhance the fermentation process and production of quality ethanol. The fermented molasses was distilled and to get bio-ethanol, the residue which is the spent wash was treated to reduce its contamination level in order not to affect lives when discharged to the environment. The results from the analysis gave 93.7% ethanol, 78.42oC boiling point value, 0.8301ml/l density, produced no offensive odour, completely miscible with water. Statistical analysis of untreated and treated spent wash reveals that it is statistically significant with p=0.032. These with other results gotten in this study are within the Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS) and therefore have proven that molasses (waste) is a good substrate for bio-ethanol production which can be used for so many purposes.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page…….…………………………………………………………………i

Approval page:…………………………………………………………………..ii.

Certification page:………………………………………………………………iii

Dedication: ………………………………………………………………….…..iv

Acknowledgement: ………………………………………..…………………….v

Table of Content: ..………………………………………….…….……………..vi

List of tables……………………………………………………………………

List of figures…………………………………………………………………….

Abstract……………………………………………………………………….v

  1.  CHAPTER ONE………………………………………………………..…………1

              1.1 INTRODUCTION OF ETHANOL…………………………………………..1

    1.  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM ……………………………………………..6
    2.  AIM AND OBJECTIVES ……..……………………………….………..….7

2.0  CHAPTER TWO……………………………………………………………………12

            2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………………12

            2. ETHANOL …………………..……………………………………………..…13

            2.3 BIOETHANOL ……………………………………………………………..13

            2.4 TYPES OF RAW MATERIALS FOR BIO-ETHANOL PRODUCTION….13

            2.5 THREE CLASSIFICATION OF BIO-ETHANOL FEEDSTOCK...........

             2.5.1  SUCROSE CONTAINING FEEDSTOCK…………………………….

            2.5.2   STARCHY MATERIALS……………………………………………….

          2.5.3  LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS………………………………….

       2.6   MOLASSES…………………………………………………………..

      2.7   TYPES OF MOLASSES…………………………………………………..

  2.7.1     LIGHT AND DARK MOLASSES………………………………………….

2.7.2       SULPHURED AND UNSULPHURED MOLASSES……………………..

2.7.3      BLACKSTRAP MOLASSES……………………………………………….

  2.8      ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF MOLASSES………………….……..

2.8.1      NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF MOLASSES………………………………

2.8.2      HEALTH BENEFITS OF MOLASSES……………………………………

2.8.3      LIST OF THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF MOLASSES…………………

2.8.3.1  ANTIOXIDANT……………………………………………………………..

2.8.3.2  SOURCE OF IRON DURING MENSTRUATION…………………………..

2.8.3.3  IT REDUCES OBESITY……………………………………………………….

2.8.3.4  BETTER SEXUAL HEALTH………………………………………………

2.8.3.5  SOURCE OF IRON DURING CONSTIPATION………………………..

2.8.3.6  SOURCE OF IRON DURING DIABETES DIABETES……………………

2.9        THE CHEMICAL REACTION OF ETHANOL…………………………….

2.10      EFFLUENT TREATMENT OF BIO-ETHANOL……………………………

2.11     PROCEDURE FOR TREATMENT OF EFFLUENT OF MOLASSES………

2.12     FACTORS AFFECTING BIO-ETHANOL PRODUCTION…………………

2.13     BENEFITS OF BIO-ETHANOL………………………………………………

2.14     ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF BIO-ETHANOL……………

3.0       CHAPTERTHREE……………………………………………………..

            3.1       MATERIALS AND METHODS………………………………………..

            3.2       PROCEDURES FOR BIO-ETHANOL PRODUCTION USING BATCH FERMENTATION METHOD…….………………..

3.3 METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………………

3.3.1 DILLUTION………………………………………………………………………..

3.3.2    FERMENTATION……………………………………………………………….

3.3.3    DECANTATION………………………………………………………………….

3.3.4    DISTILLATION………………………………………………………………….

3.5       PROCEDURES FOR TREATMENT OF SPENT WASH……………………….

4.0       CHAPTER FOUR………………………………………………...................

4.1       DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………..

            CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………….

               REFERENCES.

 

1.0                                                       CHAPTER ONE

1.1       INTRODUCTION

Transportation was one of the greatest challenges for society in the 21 century is to meet the growing demand of energy, heating and industrial processes, and to provide material for the industry in a sustainable way. Ethanol production, however, traces back as far as the days of Noah who was believed to have built himself a vineyard in which he grew grapes that he fermented into some sort of alcoholic beverages. Ethanol an important member of a class of organic compounds with general name ‘Alcohol’. During the early times, ethanol was used as a constituent of alcoholic beverages. With civilization and advancement in science and technology, the benefits derived from ethanol have continued to multiply. These include solvent, germicide, as anti-freeze, fuel and versatile intermediate for other organic chemicals. For these enormous advantages of ethanol, researchers have been geared towards the production of ethanol from various raw materials or feedstock. In addition, the environmental deterioration resulting from the over-consumption of petroleum derived products, especially the transportation fuels, is threatening the sustainability of human society (Bai et al., 2008).The excessive consumption of fossil fuels particularly in large urban areas, has resulted in generation of high levels of pollution during the last few decades. In this scenario, fuel production as one of the renewable sources for the energy industry and the chemical industry may depend on biomass as an alternative source in the near future (Oliveria and Hira, 2009). All petroleum- based fuels can be replaced by renewable biomass fuels such as bio-ethanol, bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, etc., derived from sugarcane, corn, switch grass, algae, etc (Sarkar et al., 2011).

 

Ethanol is a volatile, flammable and colorless liquid that has a slight odor. In dilute aqueous solution it has a burning taste. Ethanol has been made since ancient times by the fermentation of sugars. All ethanol beverages and more than half of industrial ethanol is still made by this process. The only difference between bio-ethanol and synthetic ethanol is that synthetic ethanol come from fossil raw materials while bio-ethanol comes from contemporary materials but chemically they are both the same compound and the two is the isotopic composition of the carbon atoms.

Bio-ethanol is regarded as one of the most promising fuels from renewable sources. It is used for medicines, cosmetics and industrial materials, and its production is increasing every year (Cardona and Sanchez, 2007). With the increasing prices and global environmental concerns, bio-ethanol production has recently become a focus of attention (Bai et al., 2008).

Generally, bio-ethanol feedback can be conveniently classified into three types which are sugar-based feedback, starchy materials and lignocelluloses biomass (Razmovski, 2012). Sugar-based feedback contains readily available fermentable sugars and can be an ideal substrate for ethanol production by direct fermentation. Direct fermentation of sugars has advantages in production costs of ethanol, compared to process that use starchy materials or lignocelluloses biomass as raw materials (Razmovski, 2012).

Molasses is a sweetener that is formed as a byproduct of the sugar-making process. Hence molasses is a solution of sugar, organic matter and inorganic matter in water. It is known as the final effluent (final molasses) and byproducts of sugar manufacture. Black strap molasses are molasses produced from raw sugar factories from cane or beet. Often, only the term molasses is used for molasses from a beet factory where as black strap is preferably used for cane molasses. Refinery (final) molasses (refinery black strap, barrel syrup), is derived mainly from cane refineries, while (high grade) white sugar is produced from raw sugar. Molasses contains around 40 percent of sugar content that is fermented by yeast during the ethanol process (Olbric, 2006).

 1.2      STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

High importance of ethanol from other countries for fuel blending, poor waste conversion of waste to other useful products.

1.3       AIM

To produce bio-ethanol from sugarcane molasses using yeast (Sacchromyces cerevisiae).

1.4       OBJECTIVES

  • To recycle waste material (molasses) into bio-ethanol through fermentation process.
  • To treat the waste product of fermentation (spent wash), making the waste environmentally friendly.

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