FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTION AND QUALITY IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

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ABSRACT

  This research was conducted to appraise the factors affecting construction workers productivity and quality of work in indigenous construction companies in Nigeria. The observed low productivity, shoddy work and poor finishing by craft workers employed in these companies inspired the choice of the research topic. The objective of this research was to ascertain if the managers of construction companies actually use modern planning methods and adequate motivation in managing construction workers for high productivity. It also aimed at verifying whether the indigenous construction companies employ qualify and trained craft workers that will ensure quality of their work. The research investigated the productivity and quality problems using field survey method. The survey adopted closed form structured questionnaires distributed to construction managers, site engineers, and supervisors of these companies. Seventy randomly selected indigenous construction companies in the six geo-political zones of the federation were given the questionnaires and fifty-two returned their filled questionnaires. The field data collected from the companies were analyzed and tested by non-parametric statistics method of frequency, percentage, ranking and chi-square at 5% level of significance. The research findings and results further confirmed that the problems of low productivity and poor quality of work observed in indigenous construction companies was due to improper planning of workforce, non-motivation and inadequate training of craft workers. Based on the results, and analysis of the field survey, fifteen-decision models were recommended to help the indigenous construction companies solve the problems of low productivity and poor quality of work.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Title page

 

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i

Approval……………

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ii

Certification ……………

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iii

Dedication

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iv

Acknowledgment 

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v

Abstract

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vi

Table of content

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vii

List of tables

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ix

List of figures

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xii

Definition of terms …

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xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

Background to the study

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1

1.2

Statement of problem

 

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3

1.3

Research questions

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3

1.4

Aim and objectives of study

 

4

1.5 Hypothesis

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4

1.6

Significance of study …

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5

1.7

Scope and delimitation

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5

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

 

 

 

 

2.1 Trade classification of construction workers

7

2.2 Craft workers Job and Work Standard

7

2.3 Work force planning and supervision … …

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9

2.4 Productivity control of work force …

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26


ix

 

 

2.5

Productivity motivation of construction workers …

30

2.6

Effective communication on construction site…

32

2.7

Quality control of construction resources…

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34

2.8

Education and training of craftsmen

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49

             

 

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

 

 

 

 

 

3.1 Research design …

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62

3.2 Scope of study …

 

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3.3 Population of study

 

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62

3.4 Sample and sampling technique

 

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62

3.5 Instrument of data collection

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3.6 Validation of Instrument

 

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3.7 Method of data collection

 

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3.8 Method of data analysis

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63

3.9 Statistical presentation of data

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63

3.10 Analysis of data

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CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1Results of field Survey …

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86

4.2 Discussion of Results

 

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87

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

 

5.1 Conclusion…

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89

5.2 Recommendation

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5.3 Limitations of study…

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REFERENCES

 

APPENDICES

List of tables

 

Table 2.1 A Typical Workers Output Standard,

 

Table 2.2 A Typical Man-Hour Output and Cost Contribution of Craft Workers in a Construction Project.

 

Table 2.2 Work Programme lot 2: Construction Of 2nd 6km Length + 4 Culverts Dual Road Construction

 

Table 2.3: A Monthly Workforce Schedule for a Typical Building Project. Table 2.2 Work Programme for the construction of 2nd 6km Length + 4 Culverts dual road

 

Table 2.3:  A Monthly Workforce Schedule for a Typical Building Project.

 

Table 2.4 Work Instruction Form

 

Table2.5 Setting out Checklist

 

Table 2.6  Strip Foundation Checklist

 

Table 2.7  Piling Checklist

 

Table 2.8 Pile cap/Ground beam Checklist Table 2.4 Work Instruction Form Table2.5 Setting out Checklist

 

Table 2.6  Strip Foundation Checklist

 

Table 2.7  Piling Checklist

 

Table 2.8 Pile cap/Ground beam Checklist

 

Table 2.9: A typical Labour Time Card for Craftsmen Table2.10 Foreman’s Daily Labour Report

 

Table 2.11 Construction manager weekly labour productivity report Chart.

 

Table 2.12 Frequency of Inspection and Tolerances in Workmanship

 

Table 2.13 Frequency of tests for quality control on Road Construction

 

Table 2.14: Standard normal variable associated with various confidence levels

 

Table 2.15 Typical Inspection Measuring and Testing Equipment on Building Site


xi

 

 

Table 2.16 (A) Internal Quality Audit Form.

 

Table 2.16 (b) Internal Quality Audit Form

 

Table 3.1: Questionnaire No 1; Ownership composition of your company

 

Table 3.2: Questionnaire No 2; Area of specialization of your company

 

Table 3.3: Questionnaire No3; Age of your company in construction

 

Table 3.4:  Questionnaire No 4; Category of registration of your company.

 

Table 3.5: Questionnaire No 5; Geographical location of your company

 

Table 3.6 Questionnaire No 6; What is the employment status of greater number of your craft workers.

 

Table 3.7: Questionnaire No 7; What is your company’s project planning set up. Table 3.8 Questionnaire No 8; Who is the head of project planning in your company.

 

Table 3.9 Questionnaire No 9; What type of construction planning method is adopted in your company.

 

Table 3.10: Questionnaire No 10; With regard to your present construction planning method, estimate crafts workers output in your company.

 

Table 3.11: Questionnaire No 11; If the output of your craft workers is below average what is the anticipated cause(s).

 

Table 3.12: Questionnaire No 12;What type of quality control method is adopted in your company

 

Table 3.13: Questionnaire No 13; Please estimate your craftsmen quality of work with your present method of quality control

 

Table 3.14: Questionnaire No 14: If the quality of work is below average, what could be the cause(s)

 

Table 3.15 Quetionnaire15; What method have you been using to determine the output of your craftsmen

 

Table 3.16 Questionnaire No 16; Please indicate the ratio of staff and casual craftsmen in your company

 

Table 3.17: Questionnaire No 17; What is the monthly salary for a staff craftsman in your company

 

Table 3.18: Questionnaire No 18; What is the daily wage for a casual craftsman employed in your company

 

Table 3.19: Questionnaire No19; What Incentive packages have you adopted for your craft workers

 

Table 3.20: Questionnaire No 20; Please with the present wages, salaries and incentive packages paid by your company estimate craft workers output

 

Table 3.21: Questionnaire No 21; If the output of craft workers is still below average, what is the anticipated cause(s).

 

Table 3.22: Questionnaires No 22: What is your recruitment source(s) for craft workers.

 

Table 3.23: Questionnaire No 23; What is the minimum qualification for your craft workers.

 

Table 3.24: Questionnaire No 24: What is your training or retraining scheme for craftsmen in your company.

 

Table 3.25: Questionnaire 25; With the present level of qualification and training

 

of your craftsmen estimate their efficiency in terms of output and quality of work

 

Table 3.26 Analysis of data

 

Table 3.27 Analysis of data

 

Table 3.28 Analysis of data

 

Table 3.29 Analysis of data

 

Table 3.30 Testing of hypotheses 1

 

Table 3.31 Analysis of data

 

Table 3.32 Testing of hypotheses 2

Table 3.33 Analysis of data

 

Table 3.34 Testing of hypotheses 3

 

Lists of figures

 

Figs 2.1 Dual Road Construction Critical Path Network

 

Fig. 2.2 A typical work grouping chart (section)

 

Fig. 2.3 Labour Accounting System

 

Fig. 2.4: Site Communication chart

 

Fig. 2.5: Normal distribution curve.

 

Fig. 2.6: Standard normal density curve

 

Fig 3.1 Graphical analysis of data

 

Fig 3.2 Graphical analysis of data

 

Fig 3.3 Graphical analysis of data

 

Fig 3.4 Graphical analysis of data

 

Fig 3.5 Graphical analysis of data

 

Fig 3.6 Graphical analysis of data

 

Definition of Terms

 

i.       Productivity - is the ratio of output to input.

 

ii.     Worker’s productivity - implies the quantity of work done per man-hour.

 

iii.  Workers productivity standard – is the effort in man-hour needed to accomplish a unit quantity of work, while working efficiently but allowing for normal delays and wastage.

 

iv.  Productivity efficiency factor - is the multiplier used to convert production norms into productivity standard expected under job condition on site.

 

v.     Craftsmen – refers to skilled workers, craft workers or tradesmen working in building or civil engineering companies.

 

vi.  Indigenous construction companies – means local construction companies fully owned and managed by Nigerians

 

viiMultinational construction companies - means Nigerian registered construction companies owned and managed by 70% foreigners and 30% Nigerians

 

viii     Productivity control – is the monitoring of performance and applying corrective measures in case of deviation from plan

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 Background of the study

 

Productivity at both micro and macro -economic level is a serious issue as far as the industrial sector is concerned. Construction industry is definitely one of such industries that make very high economic contributions in every nation. The industry usually accounts for, between 6-9% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and over 50% fixed capital formation of both developed and developing nations of the world, (Chitkara, 2006).

 Jeremaih (2012) in Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) documentary report wrote “Productivity data is the source of real economic growth and major determinant of a nation’s living standard. A single challenge to many societies is therefore, how to create a condition for rapid and sustained productivity growth especially at organizational and industrial levels. It is in realization of the important role of productivity that many nations of the world have established National Productivity Organizations (NPOs) as part of the strategies to promote productivity in individual enterprises and nations. The primary duty of every NPO is to provide an improved quality of life of the citizenry, promote productivity and competitiveness. It is in view of the poor productivity growth in Africa that Heads of States of countries in African Union, at the 16th Ordinary Session, requested member states to accelerate the implementation of the productivity agenda for African, which include the establishment of NPOs in each member states. In Nigeria, the National Productivity Centre (NPC) was established in 2004 and given the responsibility to research on the productivity of all sector of the economy, under the supervision of Federal Ministry of Labour and Productivity. Its mandate include, to formulate and advice on productivity policy that will guide all sectorsof the economy, design and initiate productivity and quality programmes, annual productivity measurement criteria, and provide a reliable data bank on productivity growth of the country etc”.

Construction is a creative and developmental venture. In view of these facts more emphasis is placed on the productivity and quality of work produced by construction workers. Incidentally, in the past three decades, after the oil boom of 1970s, the construction industry in Nigeria has been facing serious problem of low productivity. A case study once indicated that except in Lagos and Abuja the former and new capital territories of Nigeria respectively, construction workers have performed poorly in every other state of the federation. The disparity may be deduced from the efficiency of the multinational construction companies operating in the two territories. Also, when compared with the manufacturing sector, it was easy to observe that the productivity problem is more in the construction industry than in the manufacturing industry, which has continued to report rise in productivity for nearly two decades now.

 Productivity is actually the measure of individual or collective performance of resource(s) input in an organization or an enterprise. The construction industry resources are, men, materials, machines and money. Of these resources, the most vulnerable and grossly mismanaged in the Nigerian construction industry is the men or construction workers. The present craftsmen, who constitute about 60% of the direct construction workers in every project site, have not shown marked improvement in their performance since the exit of master craftsmen in 1970s. The situation could not be remedied by influx of craftsmen from neighboring countries of Ghana and Bene Republic.

Many genuine investors, developers, designers, and construction managers, have continued to indicate their serious concern on the low output and poor quality of work of this generation of craftsmen, especially on construction projects executed by indigenous contractors. They fear that the continuous decrease in productivity and quality of work by the present crop of construction craftsmen will eventually cripple the industry and its GDP coupled with the current rate of building collapse and road failures. However, it is believed that certain factors are critically responsible for the low productivity and poor quality of work of Nigerian craftsmen employed in indigenous companies. These factors formed the basis of this project study.

 

1.2 Statement of Problem

 

Construction craft workers’ low productivity and poor quality of work in Nigeria as professionals have continuously indicated result from many factors. These limiting factors range from improper planning and control, inadequate training, lack of motivation, poor welfare management, complexity of work, unavailability of materials, malnutrition, poor leadership, sickness, absenteeism, labour turnover, poor communication and supervision, adverse environmental and climatic conditions etc. All these factors exert varying degrees of limitations and influence on the output of the craftsmen. In this research, the most critical factors affecting the productivity and quality of work of these craftsmen employed in Nigerian indigenous construction companies were investigated.

 

1.3 Research Questions

 

i.          Can improper planning and poor supervision greatly affect the productivity of construction workers in our indigenous construction companies?

ii.          Can poor wages and absent of motivational incentives significantly affect the productivity of construction workers in indigenous construction companies?

 

iii.          Will inadequate education and vocational training greatly affect the quality of work and output of craft workers in indigenous construction companies?

 

1.4 Aim and Objectives of Study

 

The aim of this study is to appraise the three major factors affecting the productivity and quality of work or otherwise of the craft workers employed in indigenous construction companies in Nigeria. To achieve this, the following objectives have been set out:

 

i.               To ascertain whether the construction managers of our indigenous construction companies have adequate knowledge and application of the modern planning, supervision and control techniques on labour workforce on project sites that will ensure higher productivity.

 

ii.               To ascertain how often or otherwise the managers use incentives to motivate craft workers for higher productivity.

 

iii.               To verify if the present level of education and training of craftsmen employed in the indigenous construction firms is adequate to ensure quality of work and high productivity.

 

1.5 Hypothesis

 

H01: Improper planning, supervision and control of craft workers activities on construction site significantly affect their productivity and quality of work in indigenous construction companies in Nigeria.

 

H02: Poor wages and inadequate motivational incentives significantly affect the productivity and quality of work of craft workers in indigenous construction firms in Nigeria.

H03: Inadequate education and vocational training of craft workers significantly affect their quality of work in indigenous construction companies in Nigeria.

 

1.6 Significance of Study

 

i.        The completed study will highlight the importance for managers of the indigenous construction companies to continually apply modern planning, supervision and control techniques in the management of craft work force for higher productivity.

 

ii.     The study will intimate indigenous contractors the relevance of training and retraining of craftsmen as a sure way to increase their productivity and quality of work.

 

iii.   It will give credence to the success associated with adequate incentives packages to motivate crafts workers for higher productivity and quality of work in construction projects. Our local contractors have not been using incentives for motivation, unlike the multinational construction firms.

 

iv.   The study will add to the body of knowledge on the factors that can really affect productivity and quality of work in Nigerian construction industry.

 

v.     It will encourage building and civil engineering scholars to research further into other factors that tend to limit or affect the productivity of craftsmen.

 

vi.   Finally the study will provide probable solutions to the worrisome problems of poor quality of work and low output pledging our local construction firms.

 

1.7 Scopes and Delimitation

 

As highlighted in the statement of problem, the influencing factors on quality of work and productivity of craft workers in our indigenous construction companies are quite many and more than what can be investigated in this study. However, the study will focus on the problems of inadequate workforce planning and control of craftsmen, non-use of motivational incentives on craftsmen and inadequate education and training of craftsmen for higher productivity. The geographical scope of the study is the entire six geo–political zones of Nigeria.


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