COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TAP WATER COLLECTED FROM SELECTED AREA OF ENUGU METROPOLIS

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TAP WATER COLLECTED FROM SELECTED AREA OF ENUGU METROPOLIS

ABSTRACT

This study is consisted of the determination of some selected physiochemical properties in drinking water (Tap water) in Enugu metropolis, where drinking water source are from the Ajali treated river water. The purpose was to ascertain the quality of water from these sources. Samples were taken from, GRA, Trans Ekulu, Asata and New Haven Taps and analyzed for the following parameters; Cl, TDS, TS, EC, pH, Zn, As, Pb, Fe, Cd odour and appearance. The data showed the variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows; pH 5.60 – 5.82, Electrical conductivity (EC) Oµscm-1 - 30µscm-1, chloride (Cl) 12mgl-1 – 13mgl-1, Total Dissolved solids (TDS). 0.01mgl-1 – 0.1mgl-1 Total solids (TS) 1.15 – 4.09mgl-1, Zinc (Zn+) 0.69 – 2.57ppm, Arsenic (As) 0.0.4 – 0.19ppm Cadium (Cd) 0.04 to o.30ppm, Lead (Pb) 0.03 – 0.07ppm. And Iron (Fe) 0.05 – 0.38ppm. The concentrations of all the investigated parameters in the source of tap water samples from Enugu metropolis were within the permissible limits of the world Health Organization drinking water quality guidelines.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page        -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       i

Certification    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       ii

Dedication       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iii

Acknowledgement   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iv

Abstract -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       v

Table of contents    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       vi

List of table     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       ix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION   -      -      -      -      -      -      -      1

1.1      Background Of The Study      -       -       -       -       1

1.2      Statement Of Problem    -       -       -       -       -       4

1.3      Aims Of The Study -       -       -       -       -       -       5

1.4      Significance Of The Study      -       -       -       -       5

1.5      Scope Of The Study        -       -       -       -       -       6

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW        -      -      -      -      -      7

2.1      Water Treatment    -       -       -       -       -       -       8

2.1.1        Portable Water Purification        -       -       -       9

2.1.2        Types Of Treatment    -       -       -       -       -       10

2.2      Disinfection Of Water     -       -       -       -       -       17

2.2.1        Chlorine Disinfection -       -       -       -       -       18

2.2.2        Solar Water Disinfection    -       -       -       -       19

2.3      Additional Treatment Options        -       -       -       19

2.4      Demineralized Water      -       -       -       -       -       21

2.5      Chemical And Physical Properties Of Water -       23

2.6      Taste And Odor Of Water       -       -       -       -       26

2.6.1        Cloudiness Of Water Due To Dissolved Gasses 27

2.7      Water Distribution In Nature        -       -       -       28

2.7.1        Water Cycle        -       -       -       -       -       -       28

2.8      Water Safety And Controversies    -       -       -       30

2.9      Principle Of Operation Of AAS       -       -               31

2.10.1      Using The Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 33

2.10.2            Preparation Of Standard        -       -       -       34

2.10.3            Starting The AAS Analysis     -       -       -       34

2.10.4            Procedure Of AAS Analysis    -       -       -       35

2.10.5            After The AAS Analysis   -       -       -       -       36

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH PROCEDURE/METHODOLOGY     38

3.1      Sample Collection And Analysis     -       -       -       38

3.2      Analytical Procedure      -       -       -       -       -       40

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     RESULT AND DISCUSSION -      -      -      -      46

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION   -      50

5.1      Conclusion      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       50

5.2      Recommendation    -       -       -       -       -       -       50

References      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       53

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 1:           Physiochemical Analysis Result     -       47

Table 2:           Drinking Water Standars (WHO Limits) 48

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The availability of tap has major public health benefits, since it typically vastly reduces the risk to the public contacting water borne diseases. Providing tap water to large urban or suburban populations requires a complex and carefully designed system of collection storage treatment and distribution and is commonly the responsibility of a government agency, often the same agency responsible for the removal and treatment of water (Chartres, 2010).

Specific chemical compounds are often added to tap water during the treatment process to adjust the pH or remove contaminants, as well as chlorine to kill biological toxins. Local geological conditions affecting ground water are determining factors for the presence of various metal ions often rendering the water soft or hard.

Tap water remains susceptible to biological or chemical contamination in the event of contamination deemed dangerous to public health; government officials typically issue an advisory regarding water consumption. In the case of biological contamination, residents are usually advised to boil their water before consumption or to use bottled water as an alternative. In the case of chemical contamination, residents may be

 


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