AN EPIDEMIOLOGY SURVEY FOR SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG ADULTS IN OSUMENYI IN OKPANKU IN ANINRI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA ENUGU STATE
The prevalence of urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis among adults in Usumenyi in Okpanku in Aninri Local Government Area Enugu State was studied. In this work, 50 (fifty) urine samples were collected from six different groups and 50 (fifty) stool samples were also collected from another six different groups in Okpanku community. They were examined for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum ova using urinalysis to detect the presence of blood in urine, centrifugation method and microscopy. Also centrifugation, macroscopy and microscopy for the Intestinal schistosoma. The result revealed an overall prevalence of 31 (62%) as positive and 19 (38%) as negative for urinary schistosoma and 21 (42%) as positive and 29 (58%) as negative for intestinal schistosoma. The prevalence was higher in males than in females with 23(46%) and 11(22%).Also was higher in age group 27-30 with 5(21%) compared to age groups of 23-25 with 4(12%) for urinary schistosoma. Also the prevalence was higher in age group of 28 – 29 with 5 (23%) compared to 24 – 28 with 2 (9.5%) in intestinal schistosoma. Government should regularly disinfect ponds and streams with acrolein and copper sulphate, treat infected persons and protecting water supplies from faecal pollution by animal reservoir hosts (S. Japonicum). Destroying snail intermediate hosts, mainly by: using molluscicides where this is affordable and feasible.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Schistosomisis is a waterborne chronic human disease cause by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes. They live in the blood vessels associated with the intestine and bladder where they reproduce sexually. Schistosomiasis also known as Bilharziasis is one of the most wide spread parasitic disease that put about 400 – 600 million people world wide at risk and has already infected about 200 million people. The diseases is endemic in 74 countries of the world including Nigeria, which is among the 44 African countries where the disease is highly prevalent (Ukpai & Ezeike, 2002).
Infections take place when large number of eggs are shed in the blood vessels of the intestine or urinary bladder. After rupturing these vessels, the eggs leave the body of the host via feaces or urine. When they get into water, they hatch into ciliated miracidia which bore into the tissues of certain fresh water snail (intermediate hosts). Within the snails, each miracidium forms spore cysts which reproduces asexually to give rise to cercariae (Raven & Johnson, 2003).
There are many known established species of schistosomia which commonly infect man through others,
But the three best known species are S. mansoni, S. jap[onicum and S. haematobium (Ukoli, 2005).
S. mansoni and S. japonicum are the parasitic waterborne nematode infection that affects intestinal system and cause damage to the liver and intestinal tract and the complications arising from chronic infection are caused by a cellular reaction to the eggs in the tissues. By acquiring host antigens, the flucked are protected from host immune reactions. While S. haematobium is the blood flukes that affect urinary systems. All these flukes live in the blood vessels. Schistosomiasis has some pathogenical manifestation of rash or itchy skin, fever chills, cough and muscles aches at the early stage of one to two months. Some people, however, do not develop these symptoms at onset of infection (Ukoli, 2005).
Abdominal pain, diarrhea with blood, mucus and pus develop gradually as a result of intestinal schistosomiasis. These symptoms are caused by the body’s reaction to the presence of the worms.
People are affected when swimming or are engaged in occupational activities like washing, fishing, rice farming and irrigation project in fresh water body infected with cercariae. The availability of the appropriate snail intermediate hosts helps in the spread of the disease because the miracidia cannot penetrate human skin directly without undergoing some development in the snail host (Raven & Johnson, 2003).
Schistosomiasis remains very difficult to control, mainly in African, where the disease is linked with