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          Propeller agitator is a specialized of various types of substances.  It consists of three basic components which are the shaft, blade and the vessel.

          In the construction, mild steel was chosen due to it’s inherent properties.  After the procurement, the following constructional operations were carried out which included marking out, center punching folding, welding, filling operation, assembling, and painting to beautify the equipment and for other purposes.

          The shapes and forms are formulated to obtain the following dimensions of the agitator.  These are length of handle = 320mm, diameter of gear teeth = 100mm, thickness of shaft = 20mm, thickness of gear = 12mm, size of blade = 50mm x 100mm, blade diameter = 63mm, inside diameter of pump = 12mm, outside diameter of pump = 20mm, shat height = 470mm, vessel diameter = 340mm and height = 560mm

          The agitating mixer has high efficiency of comparable to those produced industrially.  The estimated rate of rotation is 1720 rpm.

          The cost of construction of the agitator is however minimized due to the preferred choice of the raw material and method of fabrication.




Title page

Letter of transmittal




Table of contents



1.0     introduction

1.1            The objective of the project



2.1            The theory and concept of agitation

2.2            Type of mixers

2.3            The impeller mixers for liquids

2.31   paddles

2.32   turbines

2.33   propellers

2.4            The particle mixer for free flowing solids

2.5            Mixers for heavy paste or cohesive solids

2.6            Agitator effectiveness & agitation index

2.7            Degree of agitation

2.8            Power consumption in agitators

2.9            Agitation rate

2.10       Materials for the construction of propeller agitator

2.11       Equipments for the fabrication of propeller agitator



3.1            Construction and fabrication procedure

3.2            Steps of fabrication process



4.0     cost analysis

4.1            Material cost

4.2            Labour cost



5.1            Discussion

5.2            Recommendation

5.3            Conclusion








          Propeller agitator mixing is one of the most common operations carried out in chemical, processing and allied industries.  The terms “mixing” is applied to the processes used to reduce the degree of non uniformity or gradual of a property in a system such as concentration, viscosity, temperature and so on.

          Mixing is achieved by moving material from one region to  another.  It may be of interests simply as a means of achieving a desired degree of homogeneity or it may be used two proote heat undergoing a chemical reaction.

          At the outset I t is useful to consider some common examples of problems encountered in industrial mixing operations, since this will not only reveal the ubiquitous nature of the process but will also provide an appreciation of some of the associated.  Difficulties.  Several attempts have been made to classify mixing problems, and for example “REAVELL” used as a criterion for mixing of powders, the flowability of the final products, HARNEY et al based their classification on the phases present, that is liquid – liquid, solid – liquid and so on.  This is probably the most useful description of mixing as it allows the adoption of a unified approach to the problems encountered in a range of industries.

          The term agitation is applied to a variety of operations differing in the degree of homogeneity of the mixed material.  In chemical engineering, it is conventional to treat agitation and multi purpose operations for which the principles of equipment design and operation can be stated generally, such operations in agitation like crystallization, Ion exchange and colliding are advanced of this study and construction.

          In most homes, industries and chemical operations, two or more substances are required to be mixed for users demand, in mixing as a unit operation, the substance is fed into the vessel or mixing tank containing the agitator in either one form, liquid, solid or gas.  The product obtained should either be homogenous or heterogeneous depending on demand or desired product.

          The selection of a particular agitator for a particular purpose requirement, the flow properties of the process fluid, equipment cost and the construction material required must be considered.  Ideally, the equipment chosen should be that which has the lowest cost but meets all process requirement.  In a given problem, the agitator given must handle the material when it is in it’s worst condition and may not be so effective as other design during other parts of mixing cycle.  As with other equipments, the choice of an agitator for heavy material is always a compromise and arbitrary.

          Liquids are agitated for a number of purpose, depending on the objective of the processing step, soe of the purpose includes

1.                 Promoting heat transfer between the liquid and a coil or jacket

2.                 Blending immiscible liquids, for example, methyl alcohol and water.

3.                 Dispensing a second liquid, immiscible wt h the first to form an emulsion or suspension of fine drops

4.                 Suspending solid particles

5.                 Dispersing a gas through the liquid in  the form of small bubbles.

A typical application of propeller agitator is in mixing of high viscosity liquids or solid in solids.  Most factories produce and products using blended liquids like in the confectionery industries, liquids food drinks like canned juices as well as canned and bottled drinks.

Many a times, one agitator serves several purposes at the same time, as in the catalytic hydrogenation of a liquid, in a hydrogenation vessel, the hydrogen gas is dispersed through the liquid in which solid particles of catalyst are suspended, with the heat of reaction simultaneously removed by a cooling coil or jacket.



          The objective of the project is to construct a portable propeller agitator with high efficiency and durability, which will be used for good mixing operation in smalls scale industries or in the laboratories and other applications such as domestic and pharmaceutical industries.

          The preferred choice of raw material of the construction is mild steel because of it’s excellent properties which included high resistance to corrosion, machineability, ductility, malleability, it resistance to react with the material or reactant when agitating as any reaction between the vessel and the material to be mixed will affect the product.  Moreover, it is cheap and available.

          The dimensions of the propeller agitator are length of handle = 320mm, diameter of gear teeth = 100mm, thickness of shaft = 20mm, thickness of gear = 12mm, size of blade = 50mm x 100mm, blade diameter = 63mm, inside diameter of pump = 12mm outside diameter of pump = 20mm, shaft height = 470mm, vessel diameter = 340mm and vessel height = 560mm.




















          Agitation is an important fundamental operation in nearly all chemical process.  Agitation is defined as the induced motion of material in a specified way, usually in a circulatory pattern in some sort of container. It can also be defined as the action produced by a device for keeping liquids and solids in liquid motion by mixing, stirring or shaking.

          Agitation is often confused with mixing.  Mixing according to McCabe W.L. (6th edition) is defined as the random distribution, into and through one another of two or more initially separate phases.  For example, a single homogenous material such as a thankful of cold water, can be agitated, but it cannot be mixed until.  Some material (such as a quantity of hot water or some powder solid is added to it.

          In the chemical industries mixers are used to mix two or more substances to form a homogenous or heterogeneous mixture.  Most chemical reactions does not take place without proper agitation and mixing of the reactant.  They are used as batch reactors to react components to produce a desired product.

          Agitators are versatile in application, they does not end in the chemical industries rather they proceeds to other industries like pharmaceutical, construction and domestic processes.

          Historically, the agitation operation has been taking place across phase boundaries or within the same phase as traditionally explained in mixing of


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